Eric 塔姆 – Brian 江野 :他的音乐和声音的垂直色彩

With this book, Eric 塔姆 takes one of the deepest looks ever put to paper bout an 电子音乐家.

塔姆’s book, Brian 江野 :他的音乐和声音的垂直色彩, is divided into two main sections. 的first is a review of Brian 江野 and his work in the context of modern music. This looks at both his role in the world of popular music and where he fits in the world of “art”音乐。它还考察了他的背景,影响,工作方法以及为他的工作注入灵感的想法。

的second part of his book looks in detail at 江野 ’s recordings. It examines both his rock and 周围 music, and traces how 江野 ’s rock albums evolved into 周围 pop:

第一部分– 江野 in the world of music

  • One: 江野 ’的观点
  • 二:背景和影响
  • Three: On other music: 江野 as critic
  • Four: 的ear of the non-musician
  • 五:听众和目标
  • Six: 的compositional process
  • Seven: 的musician as philosopher

第二部分– 江野 ’s Music

  • 八:将摇滚推向极限
  • Nine: 江野 ’s progressive rock: 的music
  • Ten: 的‘ambient sound’
  • 十一:合作
  • 十二:精华,历史与美丽

塔姆 begins by putting Brian 江野 ’的观点. He gives a good 概要 of 江野 ’在音乐世界中的位置:

“他是新型作曲家的典范,他可以自由利用各种音乐的资源和音乐思想。其中包括节奏,蓝调和摇滚等各种流行类型‘n’卷,渐进摇滚,朋克和新浪潮,以及非洲,中东和东方风格。他的影响力中还值得注意的是极简主义,实验性新音乐,后笼式前卫思想和电子音乐。埃诺(Eno)通过视频和雕塑装置的形式将音乐与视觉艺术相结合,广泛地讲授音乐主题,并且是许多书面材料的作者或合著者。尽管他现场表演,但他的主要经营舞台是录音棚,他称之为真正的乐器。除了混音板和多轨录音机的旋钮和开关之外,Eno还演奏键盘(主要是合成器),吉他(主要是电吉他),电贝司和各种打击乐器,他还是歌手。”

的overview is respectful and insightful, without fawning over 江野 . 塔姆 states that “Eno’音乐的销售量(而不是微薄的数量)引起了人们的持续关注。” 塔姆’s matter-of-fact approach is refreshing, and it helps put 江野 ’s place in music into perspective. 江野 ’音乐很有趣而且很重要,但塔姆(Tamm)指出,他的最大影响力可能来自于他所影响的艺术家。

塔姆 also sees the paradoxes encapsulated in 江野 ’的音乐,有时似乎在其简单性方面无所顾忌。

“Is 江野 ’音乐是神圣的简单还是单纯的?是原始的还是基本的,还是原始的和基本的?如果它来自奇妙,令人着迷‘What if?’态度,结果有时需要玩世不恭‘So what?’ response? 江野 himself combines a sophisticated, well-read intellectual sensibility with a vulnerable, child-like curiosity, in an alchemical mixture as rare in the rock world as outside it. Faced with the paradox, the listener must ultimately make his own decision.”

的second chapter looks at 江野 ’s influences. 塔姆 covers 江野 ’s pop music influences, and discusses how 江野 was most interested in music that had arrived in Britain without a context. Doo-wop, for example, seemed foreign and exotic to 江野 , because it came to Europe without a context or history. 塔姆 also notes several important influences from the classical world on 江野 , including John Cage, Eric Satie, and the early minimal composers, especially Steve Reich.

塔姆 even points out historical trails of ideas that 江野 has developed. One example is Cage’s discussion of Satie, and its influence on 江野 :

“In discussing Satie’凯奇说,音乐伴随着刀叉声‘显然这是带来一个问题’s intended actions into relation with the 周围 unintended ones.’ Although 江野 has never publicly said as much, this reference to ‘ambient’ sounds is very likely the genesis of 江野 ’s own concept of 周围 music, or at least the source of his use of the word. Later on the same page, Cage characteristically defines silence as ‘ambient noise.’凯奇再次引用萨蒂:

‘They will tell you 我不是音乐家. That’s 对 … Take the 埃菲尔铁塔 或者 Morceaux en forme de Poire, 习惯 或者 萨拉班德斯显然,这些作品的创作没有音乐思想的主持。’

再说一次,尽管可能不确定如何解释萨蒂’具有讽刺意味,苦涩和机智的陈述‘I am not a musician’ was taken up eagerly by 江野 in the 1970’s,几乎成了他的座右铭或信条,但是它引起的许多误解可能是。”

It’s clear, reading passages like this, that 塔姆 has done his work researching 江野 and reflecting on what he found.

Another good example of the depth of 塔姆’s research is found in his discussion of the influence of Steve Reich on 江野 . 塔姆 pieces together several sources of information into a compelling explanation of the effects of minimal music and their influence on 江野 :

“Although 江野 has spoken with admiration of Riley’音乐方面,史蒂夫·赖希(Steve Reich)对他的作品更具决定性的极简主义影响’s(b.1936年生)相带碎片。在1985年的一次采访中,他单挑了Reich’s It’s Gonna Rain 大概‘我听到的最重要的部分,它给了我一个主意’我从未停止着迷–非常非常简单的系统如何产生多样性。’ “

江野 continues:

“我在1970年初听说过’s,那时我所涉及的大多数人都在做相反的事情。二十四个记录仪才刚刚流行起来,其想法是制作越来越多的怪异的哥特式音乐,填充了画布的每个空间和每个角落。听到像这幅Reich一样鲜活而又如此简单的声音,真让我震惊…我以为我可以做到。它’s not hard.’ [laughs]”

This passage also gives significant insight into 江野 ’s ear for music and his compositional approach. 塔姆 makes it clear that, while Cage’s writing helped open up the ideas of 周围 sound to 江野 , Reich’s work gave 江野 license to think as a serious composer.

的chapter bout 江野 as a critic reviews 江野 ’s writing on other music. 的chapter gives a little insight into how thinks bout other music, his likes and dislikes, and a deeper understanding of his influences. 的chapter, again, is well-researched, and covers 江野 ’s writing on many musical styles. 的quotes 塔姆 has chosen reveal much bout 江野 ’的兴趣和塔姆’s commentary helps show how 江野 ’其他音乐的看法影响了他自己的观点。

“像1970年末的许多其他白人音乐家一样’s (most notably the Police, who forged a distinctive popular style based on the angular vocal melodies and off-beat bass lines of reggae), 江野 was fascinated with the sounds of Jamaican reggae music. Once again, it was the procedure of how the music was put together, as much as the sound itself, that interested 江野 :

‘The contemporary studio composer is like a painter who puts things on, puts things together, tries things out, and erases them. 的condition of the reggae composer is like that of the sculptor, I think. Five or six musicians play, they’彼此很好隔离。然后他们演奏的东西(您可以将其视为一种音乐)被砍掉–东西被拿出来很长时间了。

吉他会出现两个弹奏,然后再也不会出现,低音会突然消失,并创建了一个有趣的空间。雷鬼作曲家通过非常巧妙地,非常规地使用回声,通过省略乐器以及非常开放的音乐节奏结构,在音乐中创造了一种维度感。’

的‘sculptural’方式明显影响了伊诺’自己的构图方式。他对雷鬼舞毫无兴趣是他的特征’的政治含义,既不是拉斯塔法里教的本土哲学或生活方式,也不是西方白人音乐家和听众在雷鬼节拍中表达对第三世界的声援都具有某种意义– Bob Dylan’他在1983年的专辑《异教徒》中使用牙买加节奏部分就是一个典型例子。江野’从工程的角度来看,音乐的兴趣在于音乐的声音,音乐可以教他如何作曲,如果‘political’音乐的含义对Eno至关重要,它仅限于音乐家之间以及音乐家与听众之间的本地互动。”

In this chapter, 塔姆 effectively makes connections between music and ideas that would otherwise seem disparate. This selection, for example, connects techniques found in Reggae music with 江野 ’s mature work, which sounds nothing like reggae. Nevertheless, 塔姆 helps point out that many of the techniques that 江野 uses are ones that he could hear in the studio work of reggae musicians.

第四章 的Ear of the Non-Musician, looks at 江野 ’s 艺术 school background, and how 江野 ’s non-traditional training influences his approach to music. It discusses ideas that were popular when 江野 was in school, such as the processes of 艺术 being the 艺术 itself.

It also introduces a key idea of the book, that 江野 ’s music is “vertical”. Calling 江野 ’s music “vertical” is 塔姆’这种说音乐没有的方式’它符合西方传统的音乐观念,即线性音乐或具有时间形式的音乐。

“Much of 江野 ’s music is constructed on a 垂直 basis: to a great extent, it is music concerned with the sheer color of sound, rather than with the linear (horizontal) growth of melodies. Each moment in 江野 ’音乐呈现出某些音色或音色,而兴趣在于这些音色之间的关系–而不是主题材料的演变,这是数百年来大多数西方艺术音乐的常态。”

塔姆’的特征虽然有效,但似乎有点过分简化了。它’s true that 江野 ’s work doesn’t follow a traditional linear progression, or display traditional forms. It does change in significant ways over time, though. In his earliest 周围 pieces, like his proto-ambient 谨慎的音乐, 江野 uses filtering and equalization to change the sound of the synthesizer lines in important ways over time.

江野 ’关于他的方法的讨论 创造和组织艺术多样性 明确表明他’s most interested in creating systems that generate interesting music. 江野 ’s approach is to create sound paintings that have enough stasis to be consistent and recognizable, yet that have enough variety to be interesting. This tension between the static sound that identifies an individual piece and the range of infinite possibilities is what makes 江野 ’有趣的音乐方法。

In fact, in 江野 ’s 1978 line notes for his Ambient series, 江野 states that 周围 music should be “它必须像有趣的一样可忽略。” 塔姆’s “vertical” characterization is certainly an important aspect of 江野 ’s music; 江野 ’s work embraces a sort of stasis that is unusual in western classical music. However, his music would be dull if this were not balanced with the tension generated by unexpected variation. 的crux of understanding 江野 ’声音不仅欣赏“vertical” aspect of his music, but in also understanding the tension 江野 generates between stasis and randomness, in “产生和组织多样性” within his music.

塔姆 also discusses the idea of craftsmanship within 江野 ’s music. 江野 is not a trained musician, is proficient but not virtuosic on the instruments he plays, and even questions the idea that he is a musician. 塔姆 provides an excellent discussion of 江野 ’s views:

“This resolute lack of technique has become an integral part of 江野 ’整个音乐创作的哲学方法。无论是出于内部或外部防御,还是出于诚实的自我检查,他都提出了各种理由来保持‘non-musician.’一是缺乏技术几乎迫使一个人具有创造力:它使一个人面对一个’s vulnerability. 江野 explains:

‘I’看过音乐家们为一个主意而沉迷,他们做了什么’每次之间做的只是闲逛,玩布鲁斯音乐或其他什么,只是为了确保自己,嘿,我’我没有用。看,我可以做到。’但是我相信让这种[技术]重新出现是一种幻想。它’s better to say, I’m useless,’然后从那个位置开始我认为技术阻碍的方式是欺骗您以为您实际上在做某事时就在做某事。””

塔姆 shows that 江野 views technique as a double-edged sword. It can be useful for creating and recreating music, but it can also be a crutch that can substitute for creative insight.

塔姆 summarizes 江野 ’工艺和方法:

“Eno’与任何作曲家一样,他的主要资产是他的耳朵。特别是因为他使用录音带上的声音而不是页面上的笔记,所以聆听是他的主要创作活动。他一再强调,许多音乐家的问题,无论是工作室乐器演奏家,乐器演奏家,合成器向导还是计算机音乐作曲家,都是他们不听自己在做什么。就他而言,他乐于使用他能理解的声音材料,尽管它们可能很少出现。正如他所说,‘您越了解事物的结构,您就越’我会对其中最小的运动感到惊讶。从这种意义上讲,可能性是无限的。’

As we have already seen, some of the musicians 江野 admires most are those who have realized that there are really distinct advantages to working within a quite restricted range of possibilities. Ultimately, this line of thought can become a transformational philosophy applicable to the whole of life, not just to musical composition. As 江野 has advised, ‘将您的限制视为秘密优势。或作为您可以利用的约束。’

By 1981, if not before, 江野 had come to the conclusion that the recording studio and the empirical method of composing has created a new 艺术 form, a whole new kind of music’: In some sense it’s so different that it really should be called by a different name. 的only similarity is that people listen to it, so it enters through the same sense, but in the way it’s made it’真的是另一回事。”

的fifth chapter looks at 听众和目标. This includes a deep exploration of 江野 ’s 周围 sound, and 塔姆 provides many great quotes from 江野 . 他的 coverage of 江野 ’s ideas bout 周围 music one of the most interesting sections of the book.

This chapter also provides some of 塔姆’最有趣的写作。

塔姆 begins by quoting 江野 :

“‘Critics can’这些记录大体上是正确的,因为他们在寻找永恒的青春期时仍然希望一切都是蓬勃,躁狂和机智的。他们一次又一次回到摇滚音乐,期待自己像个孩子。那不是’我不再想要音乐了–不完全是这样。一世’我对感觉像个小孩子的想法很感兴趣,但是我’我对自己像个十几岁的少年没兴趣。’

此引号的最后一段与Eno联系在一起’一般而言,对岩石有很多保留。显然,他的环境音乐与渐进式摇滚音乐针对的受众不同,或者至少针对不同的接受方式。依诺(Eno)运用他周围的作品,明确尝试制作不太自信的音乐,不会过多干扰音乐,不敢让听众听,也不会威胁听众,如果他们选择不听的话。–但与此同时,复杂而深刻的音乐足以维持和奖励近距离聆听。他的环境音乐被设计为以低音量或中音量播放,高音量设置对音乐的感觉和精神造成了暴力。仔细聆听可以发现声音在不断变化,但反常的是,即使没有真正引起注意,同样的音乐也可能显得既平稳又平稳。埃诺批评家’周围的作品经常抱怨音乐中没有太多变化。他通过将他的音乐作品与绘画相比较来回应这种批评。‘作为环境的连续部分’可以选择注意到或忽略:

‘如果一幅画挂在我们生活的墙上,我们就不会’t feel that we’通过不注意而错过了某件事…然而,对于音乐和视频,我们仍然对某种戏剧充满期待。我的音乐和视频确实发生了变化,但变化缓慢。他们以这样的方式改变’不管你有没有想念… 的conventional commercial notion that people want a lot of stimulus and constant change simply isn’没错。在我来自的世界,流行世界,那里’人们始终认为,公众基本上是很懒惰的,必须一直被劝说。因此,一切都充满了所谓的惊喜和变化。”

There are at least three layers of ideas going on within 塔姆’s writing here. He’s quoting 江野 , giving a view of the music straight from the source. He’s providing a context for how 江野 ’s music was received by critics and listeners. Finally, 塔姆 reveals, indirectly, something bout his own ear and interpretation.

This chapter also includes an excellent discussion of 江野 ’s essay, 创造和组织艺术多样性. This essay is key to understanding 江野 ’s approach to music, and is probably 江野 ’s clearest explanation of the ideas underlying his approach. 塔姆 places 江野 ’s ideas within a larger context of the world of other 艺术 music, and covers how 江野 ’他对控制论和系统的兴趣体现在他的工作中。

Chapter 6 covers 江野 ’s compositional process. Of greatest interest in this chapter is 塔姆’s discussion of 江野 ’使用工作室作为合成工具。

“正如Eno自己指出的那样,他的音乐作品非常依赖于技术,以至于在任何以前的时代都没有这种技术。当他说自己是一名有声画家或声音风景的建构者时,他不仅仅是在隐喻上:因为从真正意义上说,磁带是他的画布,并且他将他的声音物质应用于那个画布,混合它们,混合它们,确定其形状,以特定的绘画方式’道路。他的仪器技术足以使他得到颜料 ’首先,在上一章中,我们看到了他如何发现处理那些本身已经很复杂的初始记录材料要困难得多。他的声明进一步证实了他声称自己不只是声音画家的作曲家的感觉,即他在视频作品中使用光的方式与在音乐中使用声音的方式相同。”

塔姆 goes on to discuss 江野 ’s important lecture 的Studio As Compositional Tool讨论了录音改变音乐本质的方式,以及如何将其用作制作前所未有的音乐的工具。

Of interest to gear-heads, this chapter also discusses 江野 ’s use of synthesizers. 塔姆 briefly discusses the instruments that have been important elements of 江野 ’包括EMS型号AKS,Yamaha CS-80,Yamaha DX7,Arp 2600,Korg Micropreset和Yamaha YC-45D风琴的声音。

In addition to the studio itself and synthesizers, 塔姆 points out that effects are an important part of 江野 ’s sound:

“Other important components of 江野 ’s mega-instrument are the innumerable electronic boxes or devices that can be added to a circuit, usually between the guitar or keyboard and amplifier, to alter the tone color and sound envelope characteristics. Typical effects to be got from these linking machines include echo, reverb, (intentional) distortion, flange, phase shift, chorus, and wah-wah. Some of these effects can also be produced at the mixing board, but it often makes a difference where in the total electronic circuit the sound-altering device is located: echoed fuzz may have a different sound profile than fuzzed echo. Possibilities multiply, as 江野 has said,

‘使用效果器的全部目的是试图将那些特质重新引入声音中,使声音脱离完美的境界,进入真实的境界。一世’在我的合成器之后,将任何数量的垃圾排成一排,以查看会发生什么[声音]。’

在可能的情况下,Eno喜欢与使用脚踏板的设备一起使用–再次给他一种身体上的控制感。他没有标准‘line of junk’ –他的变声设备配置始终在变化。他认为图形均衡非常重要’在他组装的大多数电路中,回声效应几乎同样重要,而且他倾向于一次使用两个或三个回声设备,通常是在距离录音机最近的那条链的末端。回声和混响在某种意义上与其他效果不同,因为它们在音乐发生的物理空间中产生了幻觉。可以使同一乐器听起来就像位于小房间,大房间,音乐厅,石头大教堂乃至大峡谷中。回声和混响效果可以唤起整个地理环境。””

塔姆’s discussion of effects is important, because they are so important to 江野 ’s sound, and have become essential elements of modern 周围 music. 的use of these cheap effects has largely been ignored by 电子音乐家s working in a classical context. As a result, 江野 ’声音的探索一直是这些工具最原始的用途。

塔姆 goes beyond name-checking the equipment that 江野 ’ uses. He even diagrams a hypothetical studio configuration for one of 江野 ’s pieces. It shows how 江野 uses equipment in conventional and unconventional ways to create unique effects, and the compositional function of various studio elements. This leads to 塔姆’s discussion of 江野 ’s Systems of Composing. This section looks at how 江野 works within his studio, what he does to create inspiration, what his working methods are.

第7章讨论 的musician as philosopher. 的theme of this chapter is a bit of a stretch, especially since 塔姆 has pointed out earlier that 江野 doesn’t really consider himself a musician, and questions whether his work is even music. 的chapter looks at underlying philosophical ideas within 江野 ’s music. 塔姆 discussion includes: Ultimate Realities, such as the existence of God; Culture and Information; 的Masculine and the Feminine; Politics; and Metaphors and Images.

This chapter is less compelling that some of 塔姆’s other chapters, though, because 江野 ’s music tends to be bsolute music, rather than programmatic. While 江野 ’音乐可以传达奇迹’与宗教无关。

的second part of the book is an in-depth look at 江野 ’s music. Chapter 8, 将摇滚推向极限, looks at 江野 ’s solo rock albums. 塔姆 focuses on albums where 江野 is the primary composer. This chapter introduces each of 江野 ’的主要个人作品,并讨论了它们在摇滚世界边缘的地位。

第九章 江野 ’s Progressive Rock: 的Music, digs in great detail into these works. It categorizes 江野 ’流行音乐分为五个主要类别:攻击性歌曲,以失真,驾驶节奏和激进的图像攻击听众;声音更悦耳的流行歌曲;“strange” songs that combine elements of rock, pop and jazz to create a weird, wistful, or dreamlike effect; and hymn-like songs that feature slow diatonic melodies over string or organ-like backing; and instrumental pieces that anticipate 江野 ’s later work.

塔姆’的分组具有洞察力,他将这些类别应用于 温暖的喷气机来了, 乘虎山(按策略), 另一个绿色世界科学之前和之后. 塔姆 then reviews each type of song, and dissects a prime example of each type.

For example, here is 塔姆’s discussion of 圣埃尔莫’s Fire:

“St. Elmo’s Fire (绿色世界) is the most unblushingly poppish song 江野 has ever committed to record –在那些批评者的思想中,这无疑是突出的 另一个绿色世界 江野 ’最易访问的专辑–他为什么不将其单独发行,这似乎是一个令人困惑的问题,因为它似乎具有广受欢迎的流行歌曲的大部分成分:传统的诗句/副词形式,活泼的节奏,简单的大调,通过原始乐器进行的愉悦和无异,充满活力的吉他独奏,在副奏上保持假调和声,以及– most importantly –真实的旋律/抒情的钩子(在蓝色的八月月亮中/在凉爽的八月月亮中)’)。如果这首歌缺少流行歌曲的一个关键要素,那就是明确的浪漫情趣的朴实和性感: 圣埃尔莫’s Fire 是一首情歌,但对于前40名歌手来说,其图像太稀少了’穿越沼泽,野蔷薇,无尽的蓝色蜿蜒曲折,火灾,电线,公路和暴风雨的隐喻之旅(‘然后我们在一片沙漠中休息/先生长着骨头的牙齿变白了/我们看到了圣埃尔莫’醚中的火/分裂离子’). 圣埃尔莫’s Fire 完全没有讽刺意味,是一首美丽的流行歌曲,接受并接受了媒体的局限性。

Only two musicians took part in making the song. 江野 plays organ, piano, Yamaha bass pedals, desert guitars,’和合成打击乐器(包括类似于鼓形鼓的音色和类似木块的音色,其驱动节奏可弥补实际鼓音的不足),而Robert Fripp则添加了Wimshurst吉他’上文已描述了其起源的独奏(请参阅第89页)。总体而言,纹理在 圣埃尔莫’s Fire is more dense than usual for 江野 , but this is in keeping with the song’s more popular nature. At three minutes, it does not overstay its welcome. 的song’的表单很容易被模式化:

例子2

形式 圣埃尔莫’s Fire

  • 介绍(仪器的累计入口)
  • 第1节(大调和弦)
  • 避免(超过||:vi | V | IV:||级数)
  • 第2节
  • 副歌
  • 第3节(Wimshurst吉他在背景中预热)
  • Wimshurst吉他独奏(超过Refrain和弦)
  • 副歌
  • 淡出和弦

Straightforward as it is harmonically, rhythmically, melodically, and formally, 江野 was correct in pointing out that songs like this cannot be reductively analyzed in such terms alone: ‘You can’记下 圣埃尔莫’s Fire.’ (Emphasis mine.)

Reading through 塔姆’的详细分析使我想重新回顾一下录音。

In addition to the thorough discussion of the solo rock albums, their place in rock history, and the music, 塔姆 shows a progression from 江野 ’s first rock album to his last that reveal 江野 ’s growing interest in 周围 instrumental music.

In Chapter 10, 塔姆 gets into the 的Ambient sound. This section is one of the most interesting of the book, and provides an excellent introduction to 周围 music.

的bulk of this chapter looks at the work that 江野 created in one of his richest creative periods, 1978-1982. In these years, 江野 released the four albums that make up his Ambient series, 环境I-IV. These works created 周围 music as a style, and each album explored different musical territory, territory that 艺术ists are revisiting to this day.

塔姆 brings the same depth of critical analysis to his discussion of 江野 ’s 周围 works as he did to 江野 ’s rock music. Of particular interest is his discussion of one of the loveliest pieces from 江野 ’s 环境1,机场音乐:

“‘2/1,’ the second piece on the first side, is the purest, and arguably most effective, of the four compositions. 的only sound sources used are taped female voices singing single pitches with an bsolutely unwavering tone production, on the syllable ah,’每个音高约五秒钟。这些唱歌的音符已经过电子处理,使它们具有柔和的打击/衰减音调和伴随声音的轻微嘶嘶声。音调材料再次非常有限:七种音调加在一起构成了Db大七和弦,并加上了第九和弦。 (请参见示例10。)

例子十

谐波含量‘2/1’
b’
f’
eb’
db’
c’
b
f

的节奏‘2/1’是按顺序组织的。正如Eno所解释的那样,每条长音被记录在一条单独的胶带上,并且每条胶带被制成一个不同长度的环。循环长度之间的关系‘aren’t simple, they’不六到四。他们’例如27到79,或类似的东西。数字意味着他们将不断陷入彼此不同的关系。’实际上,Eno并没有精确测量长度,而是简单地将看起来像‘reasonable’每个音符的额外胶带量。‘然后,我开始运行所有循环,并让它们按照他们选择的配置方式进行配置。因此,有时您会得到密集的簇声和相当长的沉寂,然后您会得到一系列音符,产生一种旋律。’

Thus the exact ratios between the cycles of repetition of the seven notes 江野 deemed unimportant. For the record, the approximate duration of each cycle, determined through measurement with a stopwatch, is given in 例子11, the pitches are given in order of their first appearance.

例子11

节距周期的近似持续时间,单位为2/1′

c’ eb’ f b’ db’ f’ b
21′ 17′ 25′ 18′ 31′ 20′ 22′

有趣的是再次注意到Eno’s pitch material adds up to a chord that is not in root position (that is, the theoretically strongest note, Db, is not the lowest note of the chord). Furthermore, the root Db, the one note capable of producing a high-level dissonance in the context (a minor second with the neighboring C), has the longest cycle of the whole set, and is thus heard least frequently. 的competing tonics’Db和Ab的例子说明了在Eno中经常发现的模态歧义’s music. Such music suggests a key, keys, or mode, but does not assert one unambiguously. 的melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic cadences so important to the establishment of key in tonal music are completely bsent here.

声音和沉默之间的平衡至关重要‘2/1,’而且没有其他的伊诺’沉默本身是如此重要。这种乐曲的稀有性,长音的系统使用以及连贯的组织结构,使人联想起韦伯恩的作品,例如他的《交响曲》的第一乐章。尽管有不同的色调习惯用法,但还是在1928年的第21页上。然而,大多数评论家和音乐学家都会同意,即使是那些在数字上勾勒出该交响曲中音行形式中复杂的双正典的初学者’如果没有成绩,则根据实时教规进行的博览会不太可能取得很大的成功。在江野’s ‘2/1,’另一方面,由于音调材料的限制,固定的,狭窄的套准以及缓慢的节奏循环,如果他或她选择这样做,则有见识的听众有更大的希望跟随系列展开。在机场氛围和国际象棋游戏之间,‘2/1’令人钦佩地实现了其既定目标,即能够容纳不同级别的听力注意力,同时在每个级别提供不同种类的奖励。”

塔姆 recognizes that the depth of his analyis may be a musicalogical geek-out. However, like all good music analysis and criticism, 塔姆’s writing will give a new depth of understanding and appreciation of 江野 ’对感兴趣的读者的音乐。

第十一章 协同合作 looks at 江野 ’s work with other musicians. 江野 has a long history of working with other interesting musicians, and he often acts as a catalyst to help them create their best work. In fact, if you look at 江野 ’与其他音乐家合作,’不仅列出了他们最好的专辑,而且还列出了过去30年中最好的流行音乐。他的合作包括:Robert Fripp’s 周围 guitar work; David Bowie’s , 英雄房客;德沃’s 问:我们不是男人吗?答:我们是Devo!;会说话的头’ 更多有关建筑物和食物的歌曲, 对音乐的恐惧保持光明;和U2一起发行了许多最好的专辑。

Because 江野 works as a producer or collaborator on these albums, 塔姆 does not go into as much detail in his discussion of these albums. These collaborations do reveal a great deal of 江野 ’作为协作者的能力,以及他在流行音乐界的理解能力和洞察力。

第十二章 本质,历史与美丽 puts 江野 ’s work into a context within both western classical music and popular electronic music. It sums up 江野 ’s place.

This chapter, in some ways, serves to qualify 塔姆’s work. 塔姆 recognizes that, while the tools of western classic music theory are great tools for understanding classical music, they are somewhat limited for understanding 江野 ’s music:

“然而,理论上的传统对大多数人感知音乐的方式几乎没有直接影响。尽管理论和分析无疑代表了持续的对话–可能是必不可少的–在整个世界’s musical discourse, I doubt whether a precise measurement of the tape-loop lengths of 江野 ’s ‘2/1′可能会在大多数听众身上占据更大的主导地位’对发声表面的反应,而不是对Webern中音行形式操作的解释’s交响曲,作品。 21.重复周期是该块基础的建议’s structure is enough, and 江野 knows it.”

While 塔姆 recognizes the limitations of applying his training in classical theory to 江野 ’s music, he doesn’t use this as an excuse to shy away from dealing with the questions raised by 江野 ’s work.

的author provides several additional sections that add details that would have otherwise bogged down his writing. An Epilog updates the book with some of 江野 ’s more recent work. An extensive set of end notes and a bibliography provide sources for the annotations that appear throughout the book. Hardcore 江野 fans will find these useful for finding both 江野 ’s most important writings and other writing related to 江野 ’s work. A Glossary defines terms that 塔姆 uses in the book that are part of the lingo of music theory, but that many readers may not be familiar with. Finally, a Discography identifies 江野 ’记录了直到1995年的工作,并且没有肛门保留过多的情况。

Brian 江野 –他的音乐和声音的垂直色彩 is one of the most thorough books ever written bout a modern musician in the pop or 艺术 竞技场a. It covers 江野 ’s music with obvious respect, but without fawning reverence. It is thorough, comprehensive and deep, attacks the important questions that 江野 ’s music raises, and subjects 江野 ’音乐要经过严格的审查。塔姆’s book is the best written on Brian 江野 and his music, the deepest look at 周围 music, and one of the best books on electronic music that I’ve read.

While 塔姆’s work is an excellent, essential book, it is not without 弱点. 的most obvious problem of the book is that it was originally written as a thesis. It is occasionally dry or academic as a result, which drains some of the life out of the subject matter.

Another weakness is the almost complete lack of illustrations. Additional illustrations would make the book much more accessible, and would give insight into 江野 ’s background as a visual 艺术ist. 江野 ’s album covers, for example, are sometimes visual representations of his music, and at other times amplify the ideas of moods contained in his music. 塔姆 at one point discusses sexuality and sexual roles in 江野 ’s work, and photos of 江野 over time would help amplify this discussion. When 塔姆 discusses 江野 ’的工作室和他的工作方式,为此而有照片可供参考也会很有趣。

尽管塔姆强调“声音的垂直颜色” in 江野 ’s music, there is little discussion of 江野 ’s orchestration, 或者 instrumentation of his pieces. 江野 sees himself as more of a sound painter, rather than a musician, and his use of tone color, sound effects, and reverberant spaces is a very important aspect of his music. 江野 is also well-known for his use of Yamaha DX-7’s和FM合成。对于Tamm的编排方法,声音调色板以及实际使用的音色感兴趣的读者可能会感到失望’s coverage.

More discussion of 江野 ’s musical judgment would have been interesting, also. 塔姆 notes that 江野 ’的作品有点自相矛盾。它’s simple to the point of being simplistic. In fact, many musicians that listen to 江野 ’的工作可能会认为“I could do that”通过简单地获取一些漂亮的声音,将它们循环播放并添加大量混响。

In fact, hundreds of musicians have done just that. There are now dozens of variations on 周围 music: 周围 pop, 周围 trance, dark 周围, 周围 rock, and so on. While many of the musicians inspired by 江野 have done interesting work, none has been ble to equal the mystery and beauty of 江野 ’s开创性的作品。最“ambient” work seems inspired by the superficial sound of some of 江野 ’s more accessible pieces, rather than by an understanding of the ideas and processes 江野 uses to create his work.

What makes 江野 ’s 周围 work different? Additional discussion of 江野 ’s musical judgment might provide some context for understanding and appreciating his work in relationship to other 周围 music.

It reflects well on 塔姆’每个人的工作“weaknesses”是他的写作使人们想知道更多的例子。

概要

塔姆’s book is essential reading for fans of 江野 , 周围 music, and electronic music in general. 的book is deep, thorough, and provides a great deal of insight into the music and mind of one of the most influential musicians, composers and thinkers of the late twentieth century.

的book is a serious and thorough review of the ideas and techniques in the music of Brian 江野 . It’s a very interesting read, and will inspire readers to listen with new appreciation of 江野 ’s music.

Brian 江野 :他的音乐和声音的垂直色彩 is essential reading for anyone interested in 周围 and electronic music.

 

Eric 塔姆, author关于作者

Eric 塔姆, , is a musician and writer, and works as a marketing writer in the software industry. He is co-founder of the seminal Silicon Valley rock band 的Raving Daves, and, according to his site, he composes and records “扭曲的古典音乐数量令人难以置信,其中的一小部分可从CD上获得。”

In addition to his book on Brian 江野 , 塔姆 has written 罗伯特·弗里普(Robert Fripp):从深红王到吉他手.

他的 网站 有关于他的音乐的信息, 疯狂戴夫,他的书和他的画。

 

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